The gut microbiota is composed of a large number of microbes, usually regarded as commensal bacteria. It has become gradually clear that gastrointestinal microbiota affects gut pathophysiology and the central nervous system (CNS) function by modulating the signaling pathways of the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis. This bidirectional MGB axis communication primarily acts through neuroendocrine, neuroimmune, and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) mechanisms. Accumulating evidence reveals that gut microbiota interacts with the host brain, and its modulation may play a critical role in the pathology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, neuroscience research has established the significance of gut microbiota in the development of brain systems that are essential to stress-related behaviors, including depression and anxiety. Application of modulators of the MGB, such as psychobiotics (e.g., probiotics), prebiotics, and specific diets, may be a promising therapeutic approach for neuropsychiatric disorders. The present review article primarily focuses on the relevant features of the disturbances of the MGB axis in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders and its potential mechanisms.
|ジャーナル||Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry|
|出版ステータス||Published - 2021 1 10|
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