Persistent inflammatory reactions in microglial cells are strongly associated with neuro-degenerative pathogenesis. Additionally, geranylgeraniol (GGOH), a plant-derived isoprenoid, has been found to improve inflammatory conditions in several animal models. It has also been observed that its chemical structure is similar to that of the side chain of menaquinone-4, which is a vitamin K2 sub-type that suppresses inflammation in mouse-derived microglial cells. In this study, we investigated whether GGOH has a similar anti-inflammatory effect in activated microglial cells. Particularly, mouse-derived MG6 cells pre-treated with GGOH were exposed to lipopolysaccha-ride (LPS). Thereafter, the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined via qRT-PCR, while protein expression levels, especially the expression of NF-κB signaling cas-cade-related proteins, were determined via Western blot analysis. The distribution of NF-κB p65 protein was also analyzed via fluorescence microscopy. Thus, it was observed that GGOH dose-dependently suppressed the LPS-induced increase in the mRNA levels of Il-1β, Tnf-α, Il-6, and Cox-2. Furthermore, GGOH inhibited the phosphorylation of TAK1, IKKα/β, and NF-κB p65 proteins as well as NF-κB nuclear translocation induced by LPS while maintaining IκBα expres-sion. We showed that GGOH, similar to menaquinone-4, could alleviate LPS-induced microglial inflammation by targeting the NF-kB signaling pathway.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- コンピュータ サイエンスの応用