• Background and Aims: Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a dimorphic self-incompatible plant with either pin or thrum flowers. The S supergene is thought to govern self-incompatibility, flower morphology and pollen size in buckwheat. Two major types of self-fertile lines have been reported. One is a type with long-homostyle flowers, Kyukei SC2 (KSC2), and the other is a type with short-homostyle flowers, Pennline 10. To clarify whether the locus controlling flower morphology and self-fertility of Pennline 10 is the same as that of KSC2, pollen tube tests and genetic analysis have been performed. • Methods: Pollen tube growth was assessed in the styles and flower morphology of KSC2, Pennline 10, F1 and F2 plants that were produced by the crosses between plants with pin or thrum and Pennline 10. • Key Results: Pollen tubes of Pennline 10 reached ovules of all flower types. The flower morphology of F1 plants produced by the cross between thrum and Pennline 10 were thrum or pin, and when pin plants were used as maternal plants, all the F1 plants were pin. Both plants with pin or short-pin flowers, whose ratio of style length to anther height was smaller than that of pin, appeared in F2 populations of thrum x Pennline 10 as well as in those of pin x Pennline 10. • Conclusion: The results suggest that Pennline 10 possesses the s allele as pin does, not an allele produced by the recombination in the S supergene, and that the short style length of Pennline 10 is controlled by multiple genes outside the S supergene.
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