In order to clarify the generation mechanism of Z-mode waves observed in the equatorial plasmasphere, the growth rate of Z-mode electromagnetic waves has been calculated under the higher-order cyclotron interaction process. Z-mode waves can interact with some tens of keV electrons with large pitch angles even in the dense cold background, and the amplitude is consistent with the Akebono plasma wave measurements. UHR and whistler mode waves are also excited by the same electron distribution, and this is also consistent with observations. The origin of these energetic electrons are identified as the ring current electrons injected into the plasmasphere by the intense large-scale electric field during geomagnetic storms, accelerated perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field and confined around the geomagnetic equator conserving the first and second adiabatic invariants. Since the intensity of Z-mode and UHR waves is associated with the development and decay of the ring current, ring current particles are most possible candidate for the free energy source of these waves.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Space and Planetary Science