Gene structure and promoter for Crad2 encoding mouse cis-retinol/3α-hydroxysterol short-chain dehydrogenase isozyme

Kengo Tomita, Masahiro Sato, Kagemasa Kajiwara, Masafumi Tanaka, Gen Tamiya, Satoshi Makino, Maiko Tomizawa, Akiko Mizutani, Yuhko Kuwano, Takashi Shiina, Hiromasa Ishii, Minoru Kimura

研究成果: Article査読

13 被引用数 (Scopus)


Cis-retinol/androgen dehydrogenase type 2 (CRAD2) has been shown to catalyze the dehydrogenation of retinols, including 9-cis retinol, and also to exhibit 3α- and 17β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities. To examine the function of this enzyme and regulation of its gene, the Crad2 gene was cloned from a mouse genomic DNA library and characterized. The complete mouse CRAD2-coding region was found in four exons spanning an approximately 5 kb region. The nucleotide sequences of the exons encoding 316 amino acids were identical to those of the previously reported mouse Crad2 cDNA. Primer extension analysis and RNase protection assay were used to map the major transcription initiation sites to the positions lying 87 and 89 base pairs upstream of the ATG translation start codon. The region proximal to the initiation sites exhibited the absence of both TATAA and CAAT boxes. This region had hepatocyte nuclear factor binding sites, consistent with its predominant expression in the liver. Computer analysis of an approximately 7.5 kb 5'-flanking region also suggested the presence of binding sites for AP-1, SREBP1, HSF2, c-Rel, c-Myc, CREBP, GATA, Ets, E2F, and Oct-1, suggesting that various factors including retinoic acid, cholesterol, various kinds of stress, the cell cycle, and cyclic AMP may regulate the expression of this gene. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization analysis showed that Crad2 is located at the terminus of mouse chromosome 10, an area that corresponds to band 10D3, suggesting that RDH-related SDRs may be located together in the cluster locus. Northern blot hybridization and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that CRAD2 was expressed not in early embryonic stages, and not in embryonic stem cells, but instead in the gastrointestinal tract during later embryonic development and adult stage. In conclusion, we have presented the first complete structural analysis, including that of the promoter and chromosomal location, of a member of the retinol/androgen dehydrogenase subfamily of the group of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) isozymes. Our findings will provide the basis for in-vitro or in-vivo studies concerning the regulation of retinol and androgen metabolism and enable determination of the mechanism of diseases related to retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and androgen. 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

出版ステータスPublished - 2000 6 27

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 遺伝学


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