Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL/ATLL) is one of the most malignant lymphomas with poor prognosis. ATL/ATLL cells express CC chemokine receptor 4, and mogamulizumab (anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody) exhibits strong cytotoxicity for ATL/ATLL cells. We analyzed plasma samples of 6 patients with ATL/ATLL treated with chemotherapy followed by mogamulizumab therapy (mogatherapy) for changes in the levels of biomarkers in relation to immune-related adverse effects. As treatment is often associated with skin eruptions, we investigated the profiles of inflammatory cytokines, including galectin-9 (Gal-9), which becomes increased in various infectious diseases and allergic patients. Gal-9, soluble interleukin (IL)-2 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-10 levels were increased before chemotherapy, and Gal-9 levels were associated with the sIL-2 receptor, which reflects tumor burden. Inflammatory levels decreased after chemotherapy. After mogatherapy, 5 of 6 patients attained complete remission (CR), whereas 1 patient showed no response (NR) and died. Among 5 patients with CR, the biomarkers remained low during mogatherapy, except for a 3-5-fold increment in Gal-9 (associated with skin eruptions). A skin biopsy showed infiltration by inflammatory cells and Gal-9 synthesis in areas with CD8 cell infiltration. In the patient with NR, increased levels of Gal-9 and the aforementioned biomarkers were noted 3 days after mogatherapy, followed by opportunistic infections resembling immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Therefore, an increased Gal-9 plasma level in ATL/ATLL indicates tumor burden and reflects immune activation by mogatherapy. These findings may indicate that an increase in the Gal-9 level, a novel immune checkpoint molecule, can reflect immune-related adverse effects of various biotherapies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas