This chapter reviews the modeling and design, processing and fabrication, and applications of functionally graded materials (FGMs). In the next section, after reviewing the general modeling and design procedure of FGMs, the microstructural characteristics of composites and the functions of composition distribution in an FGM are discussed. Next, the processes for fabricating FGMs are reviewed with emphasis on the chemical vapor deposition and powder processes. New results for powder configuration are also described. In the penultimate section, recent achievements in developing functionally graded materials including structural and functional materials are reviewed. The recent expansion of FGM application to electrical, magnetic, optical, and other fields is especially significant. Finally, in the last section, some comments on the present problem and future developments in FGM research are given.
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