The intestinal tract is the main organ involved in host nutritional homeostasis. Intestinal function in both vertebrates and invertebrates is partly controlled by enteric neurons that innervate the gut. Though anatomical and functional aspects of enteric neurons are relatively less characterized in Drosophila than in large insects, analyses of the role of the enteric neurons in flies have remarkably progressed in the last few years. In this review, we first provide a summary of the structure and function of the Drosophila intestine. We then discuss recent studies of the structure and function of enteric neurons in Drosophila melanogaster.
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