Geranylgeranoic acid (GGA) and 2,3-dihydrogeranylgeranoic acid (2,3-diGGA) are geranylgeraniol-derived metabolites (Kodaira et al. (2002) J Biochem 132: 327-334). In the present study, we examined the effects of these acids on HL-60 cells. The cells were differentiated into neutrophils by GGA stimulation like retinoic acid stimulation. In the case of cells stimulated with 2,3-diGGA, neutrophils were not detected, but the formation of lipid droplets was induced. On the other hand, when the cells were cultured in the presence of 0.1% FBS instead of 10% FBS, apoptotic cells were induced not only by GGA stimulation but also with 2,3-diGGA. In the latter case, when the cells were cultured in the co-presence of a caspase-3 inhibitor (Ac-DMQD-CHO), the lipid droplets formation was observed in the cells. These results suggest that GGA and 2,3-diGGA are extremely different from each other with respect to their effects on HL-60 cells.
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