25.1 Introduction Traditional fermented foodstuffs may be divided into six categories as follows: (1) alcoholic beverages fermented by yeasts; (2) vinegars fermented with Acetobacter or Gluconobacter; (3) fermented milk products treated with lactic acid bacteria; (4) pickles fermented with lactic acid bacteria in the presence of salt; (5) fermented fish or meat treated with enzymes together with lactic acid bacteria in the presence of salts; and (6) fermented plant proteins treated with molds, with or without lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the presence of salt . Since ancient era, people all over the world have developed traditional processes for the production of alcoholic beverages. The beverages are prepared principally by converting sugars present in the raw materials into alcohol by the action of yeasts. Vinegars have been made from almost all of these alcoholic beverages by converting the alcohol into acetic acid by the action of Acetobacter or Gluconobacter. Fruit wines have been made from sweet fruits such as grapes, apples, and oranges, and the corresponding vinegars made from these wines.
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