Kin selection in animals favors less aggressive interaction among related individuals. If the genetic relatedness among neighbors changes with population structure and density, behavioral interaction may also change according to the population structure. Charnov and Finerty proposed a hypothesis that kin selection in voles causes population cycles if the relatedness among neighbors decreases as density increases. Field experiments have recently tested this hypothesis. Furthermore, field studies of social interaction in voles have increased in number, so that the effects of kinship on reproductive success can be reviewed. These studies indicate that although kin interaction might be an important factor affecting social behavior and reproductive success in voles, the relationships both between kinship and degree of amicable behavior or reproductive rate, and between relatedness among neighbors and population density, are far less simple than had been supposed.
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