A general approach is introduced to calculate field emission properties of any kind of nanostructure based on the first-principles local density of states (LDOS) and effective potentials. The experimental field emission spectroscopy images are explained as LDOS at the structure-vacuum barrier, weighted by the probability of electron tunneling. The method excellently reproduces the experimental field emission patterns of pristine capped carbon nanotubes. We show that cesium adsorbates even with a low doping ratio of one dopant per nanotube increase the emission current around 2.5 times, due to a generated dipole field.
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