Background: Previous study shown that enzyme treated-rice bran effectively improved hypertension and glucose intolerance in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP). However, dual fermentation of rice bran's efficacy against metabolic syndrome in SHRSP is still unknown. Methods: Fermented rice bran (FRB) was prepared by dual fermentation of rice bran using fungi and lactic acid bacteria. The effect of FRB on metabolic syndrome in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) was investigated by single and chronic supplementation. Results: Dual fermentation of rice bran enriches the functional value of rice bran. Single-dose oral administration of FRB (2 g/kg body weight) reduced systolic blood pressure; however, chronic supplementation with 5 % FRB (4 weeks) significantly reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. FRB supplementation improved leptin impairment and increased serum adiponectin levels and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity. Furthermore, FRB supplementation improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity as well as serum insulin levels. Lipid profiles were also improved by the regulation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation. Moreover, supplementation with FRB reduced the expressions of hepatic transcription factors such as liver X receptor alpha, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein alpha, as well as their target genes. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with FRB may lower hypertension and alleviate metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome was better alleviated with FRB supplementation. We therefore suggest FRB as an alternative medicine to reduce the risks of lifestyle-related diseases.
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