Glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a major sphingolipid in plants and fungi, is known to have food functions such as preventing intestinal impairment and enhancing the moisture content of skin. However, there is little information about functions of GlcCer in food sources as most of the studies on GlcCer functions are done using purified GlcCer. This study was performed to investigate the effects of GlcCer contained in food on intestinal impairment; polished rice flour (RF) and this ethanol extract (RE) were used as sources of GlcCer, and these were evaluated by studying the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated mice, which is a model of colon cancer. Mice were fed with either a control diet, a RF diet where RF replaces cornstarch (150 g/kg), or a plus RE diet (0.5 g/kg; RE was extracted from the same amount of RF present in the RF diet). The amount of GlcCer was similar in both the RF and RE diets (3.0 and 2.7 mg/kg, respectively). DMH treatment induced the formation of ACF and the production of inflammation-related cytokines. Both dietary RF and RE suppressed ACF formation and RE, in particular, showed a significant suppressive effect. Dietary RE inhibited the production of almost all of the inflammation-related cytokines studied, while RF suppressed only a few of these cytokines. The present study suggests that the lipophilic fraction including GlcCer, present in polished rice has protective effects against intestinal impairment, but it requires extraction since digestion alone is not enough to elicit its complete protective action.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)