Piezosurgery is an innovative technique widely used for osteotomies in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The surgical technique has been clinically supposed to cut mineralized bone selectively with reducing the risk of damage to adjacent soft tissues. However, none of the previous literature has reported any evidence of scientific experiments to examine performance of the piezoelectric device, i.e. the time required for cutting bone and the effect on soft tissues under the standardized conditions. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that cutting time of the piezoelectric device is longer than that of rotary instruments while the cut surface of bone is smoother and soft tissues are less damaged with piezosurgery under the standardized experimental system. We measured the time for cutting bone and soft tissues of rats with the piezoelectric device and rotary instruments. Damage to soft tissues was examined histologically, and the cut surface of bone was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Our study demonstrated experimentally that piezosurgery provides a smooth cut bony surface with no damage to soft tissues and takes longer time to cut bone than conventional drillings. We propose that piezosurgery is beneficial for medical safety and usability.
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