Estimation of polarimetric parameters has been a fundamental issue to assess biological tissues that have form birefringence or polarization scrambling in polarizationsensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). We present a mathematical framework to provide a maximum likelihood estimation of the target covariance matrix and its incoherent target decomposition to estimate a Jones matrix of a dominant scattering mechanism, called Cloude-Pottier decomposition, thereby deriving the phase retardation and the optic axis of the sample. In addition, we introduce entropy that shows the randomness of the polarization property. Underestimation of the entropy at a low sampling number is mitigated by asymptotic quasi maximum likelihood estimator. A bias of the entropy from random noises is corrected to show only the polarization property inherent in the sample. The theory is validated with experimental measurements of a glass plate and waveplates, and applied to the imaging of a healthy human eye anterior segment as an image filter.
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