TY - JOUR

T1 - Estimating the sizes of surface cracks based on Hall element measurements of the leakage magnetic field and a dipole model of a crack

AU - Minkov, D.

AU - Takeda, Y.

AU - Shoji, T.

AU - Lee, J.

PY - 2002/2/1

Y1 - 2002/2/1

N2 - A method is proposed for estimating the sizes of surface cracks in magnetic materials. The method is based on applying a magnetic field, then determining the leakage magnetic field in the vicinity of a crack by moving a Hall element on the surface of the material along one or two scanning lines crossing the crack, and measuring the corresponding Hall voltage distribution. A dipole model of a crack is utilized, in which a surface crack is considered as being full of magnetic dipoles aligned parallel to the applied field, and whose density varies linearly along the depth of the crack. Analytical expressions are derived for the z-component of the intensity of the leakage magnetic field, and for the measured Hall voltage in the vicinity of a crack with an arbitrary cross-section along its long axis when it is perpendicular to the applied field. The crack sizes and the parameters of the distribution of magnetic dipoles along the crack depth are computed by crack inversion, which represents a regression for the Hall voltage distribution. A variable theoretical Hall voltage distribution is fitted to the measured Hall voltage distribution by minimizing the corresponding RMS error, which gives the unknown parameters at the end of the minimization. Hall voltage distributions are measured on ferromagnetic steel samples containing one artificial surface crack. Some crack inversions are performed for estimating the maximum crack depth and the crack width of cracks with rectangular and isosceles triangular cross-sections along the long crack axis. The accuracy of these crack inversions increases by utilizing either Hall voltage distributions measured along only one of the scanning lines, instead of along both scanning lines, or by using more precisely measured Hall voltage distributions. The fast and accurate estimation of the maximum crack depth and the crack width by such crack inversions could be important for pipeline inspection. Other crack inversions are performed for determining the cross-section along the long axis of the investigated cracks with satisfactory results.

AB - A method is proposed for estimating the sizes of surface cracks in magnetic materials. The method is based on applying a magnetic field, then determining the leakage magnetic field in the vicinity of a crack by moving a Hall element on the surface of the material along one or two scanning lines crossing the crack, and measuring the corresponding Hall voltage distribution. A dipole model of a crack is utilized, in which a surface crack is considered as being full of magnetic dipoles aligned parallel to the applied field, and whose density varies linearly along the depth of the crack. Analytical expressions are derived for the z-component of the intensity of the leakage magnetic field, and for the measured Hall voltage in the vicinity of a crack with an arbitrary cross-section along its long axis when it is perpendicular to the applied field. The crack sizes and the parameters of the distribution of magnetic dipoles along the crack depth are computed by crack inversion, which represents a regression for the Hall voltage distribution. A variable theoretical Hall voltage distribution is fitted to the measured Hall voltage distribution by minimizing the corresponding RMS error, which gives the unknown parameters at the end of the minimization. Hall voltage distributions are measured on ferromagnetic steel samples containing one artificial surface crack. Some crack inversions are performed for estimating the maximum crack depth and the crack width of cracks with rectangular and isosceles triangular cross-sections along the long crack axis. The accuracy of these crack inversions increases by utilizing either Hall voltage distributions measured along only one of the scanning lines, instead of along both scanning lines, or by using more precisely measured Hall voltage distributions. The fast and accurate estimation of the maximum crack depth and the crack width by such crack inversions could be important for pipeline inspection. Other crack inversions are performed for determining the cross-section along the long axis of the investigated cracks with satisfactory results.

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U2 - 10.1007/s003390100899

DO - 10.1007/s003390100899

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0036477497

VL - 74

SP - 169

EP - 176

JO - Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing

JF - Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing

SN - 0947-8396

IS - 2

ER -