Objectives: Viral acute respiratory infection (ARI) remains a major global health problem, especially among children in low- and middle-income countries. The study was conducted to reveal aetiological significance of respiratory viruses among both non-hospitalized and hospitalized children. Methods: A cohort study of children with ARI at the household, primary healthcare facility, and hospital levels was conducted alongside a hospital-based study including non-cohort children from 2014 to 2016 in the Philippines. The ARI cases were recorded at households and healthcare facilities, and a clinical investigation was performed. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from the symptomatic children and tested for respiratory viruses via polymerase chain reaction. Then, the association between healthcare facility utilization and viral detection was investigated. Results: Overall, 18,514 ARI cases were enrolled in the cohort study, and samples were collected from 4735 of these cases. The hospital-based study detected 648 ARI cases, all of which were sampled. Rhinovirus (22.2%; 1052/4735) was most frequently detected followed by respiratory syncytial virus (12.0%; 566/4735). Enterovirus (adjusted odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–2.8), human metapneumovirus (2.1, 1.4–3.2), rhinovirus (2.1, 1.8–2.6), and respiratory syncytial virus (1.6, 1.2–1.9) were significantly more prevalent in the ARI cases at healthcare facilities than in those in households. Of all ARI cases, 0.6% required hospitalization while 1.8% were hospitalized among the respiratory syncytial virus-positive cases (3.8, 3.0–4.9). Conclusions: We determined the prevalence of respiratory viruses among children with ARIs at the household, primary healthcare facility, and hospital levels and the association with clinical characteristics. In particular, we discovered a significant disease burden and impact of respiratory syncytial virus infections as well as a considerable aetiological implication of rhinovirus infections.
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