Fragments of hyaluronan released after injury bind and activate TLR4 in a complex with CD44. Here we investigated if the recognition of hyaluronan by CD44 and TLR4 alters lipopolysaccaride (LPS) responsiveness and thus could alter the septic response. In contrast to mice injected with LPS, mice exposed to hyaluronan prior to LPS had greatly decreased serum IL-6 and TNFα and were protected from symptoms of sepsis. The protective effect of HA was not seen in Cd44-/- mice. Consistent with our findings in vivo, addition of hyaluronan to macrophages before LPS exposure significantly decreased the release of IL-6 and TNFα and this effect was not seen in macrophages from Cd44-/- mice. Investigation of the mechanism responsible for inhibition of LPS activation showed hyaluronan treatment resulted in an increase in peritoneal macrophage A20 mRNA expression, and that this was significantly reduced in macrophages from Cd44-/- mice and Tlr4-/- mice. Suppression of the A20 response with siRNA inhibited the ability of hyaluronan to protect against the cytokine response to LPS. Therefore, our results show that hyaluronan acts through TLR4, CD44 and A20 to stimulate a unique cellular response that can protect against the septic response to LPS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology