Background: Labial fusion is defined as adhesions of the labia minora or majora. Labial fusion may cause urinary retention. Surgical treatment based on an accurate anatomic assessment may be needed, but the usefulness of endoscopic examination for this disease has not been reported. Case presentation: A 76-year-old Japanese woman undergoing chemoradiation treatment for esophageal cancer was referred to our department for evaluation of high accumulation in the vagina on a positron emission tomography scan. On physical examination, her labia were noted to be extensively fused with a pinhole opening at the midline. Endoscopic examination revealed that her vagina was filled with urine and there were no abnormalities in her urethral meatus and cervix. The adhesions were separated under anesthesia and there has been no recurrence during follow-up. Conclusions: We present a case of a postmenopausal patient with labial fusion who underwent successful surgical management. An endoscopic examination enabled us to determine the precise anatomic position and adopt a safe surgical procedure.
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