The recent advances in emission and detection of terahertz radiation using two-dimensional (2-D) plasmons in semiconductor nanoheterostructures for nondestructive evaluations are reviewed. The 2-D plasmon resonance is introduced as the operation principle for broadband emission and detection of terahertz radiation. The device structure is based on a high-electron-mobility transistor and incorporates the authors' original asymmetrically interdigitated dual-grating gates. Excellent THz emission and detection performances are experimentally demonstrated by using InAlAs/InGaAs/InP and/or InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs heterostructure material systems. Their applications to nondestructive material evaluation based on THz imaging are also presented.
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