We report on the electronic structure, efficient carrier injection, and quantitative lasing characteristics of T-shaped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-wire-laser diodes with parallel p - and n -doping layers grown by a cleaved-edge-overgrowth method with molecular-beam epitaxy. Continuous single-mode lasing from the ground subband of the quantum wires was demonstrated between 30 and 70 K in laser diodes with high-reflectivity Au coating on both cavity facets. The lowest threshold of 0.27 mA and the highest differential quantum efficiency of 12% were achieved at 30 K. Micro-photoluminescence measurements demonstrated the high optical quality of the quantum wires with narrow linewidth of 0.9 meV and provided electronic structures of surrounding layers. Microscopic electroluminescence (EL) imaging measurements demonstrated the efficient carrier injection into the quantum wires at 30 K. These two factors, i.e., high material quality and efficient carrier injection, contribute to the low threshold current and high efficiency of the laser device. The result of EL imaging at 5 K indicates an inefficient carrier injection into the active region, which limits the operating temperature of the devices.
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