Here we propose a novel electrochemical lithography methodology for fabricating calcium-alginate hydrogels having controlled shapes. We separated the chambers for Ca2+ production and gel formation with alginate with a semipermeable membrane. Ca2+ formed in the production chamber permeated through the membrane to fabricate a gel structure on the membrane in the gel formation chamber. When the calcium-alginate hydrogels were modified with collagen, HepG2 cells proliferated on the hydrogels. These results show that electrochemical hydrogel lithography is useful for cell culture.
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