Applications of electrochemical biosensing for surveying intact cells and tissues have been focus of attention. Two experimental approaches have been used when performing amperometric measurements on biological cells, the stylustype microelectrode probes and the electrode-integrated microdevices based on lithographic technologies. For the probe scanning approach, various types of microsensors were developed to monitor localized physical or chemical natures at a variety of surfaces in situ under wet conditions. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) has been applied for monitoring local oxygen, enzyme activity, and collection of transcripts. For the non-scanning type of approach, electrode array devices allow very rapid response, parallel monitoring, and multi-analyte assay. Sveral topics of on-chip-culture system were introduced especially concerning on gene expression monitoring by reporter system and reconstruction of in vivo-like nature by controlling microenvironments. Electrochemical reporter assay has been demonstrated to monitor the gene expression process of the gene-modified cultured cells. Long-term monitoring of cellular function of spheroids and three dimensionally-cultured cells were carried out by controlling microenvironments on the cellular chip.
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