Radiofrequency Applications for Spontaneous Dissociated Pulmonary Vein Activity Background The aim is to evaluate the efficacy of additional radiofrequency ablation (RFCA) for spontaneous dissociated pulmonary vein activity (DPV-spike) after PV isolation (PVI) in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods One hundred fifty-two consecutive patients with paroxysmal AF referred for RFCA were enrolled. When DPV-spike was documented after PVI, we randomly assigned these patients to receive additional RFCA for DPV-spike or only PVI. We divided them into 4 groups: 87 patients without DPV-spike after PVI (No-spike group), 31 without DPV-spike after additional RFCA (Successful group), 8 with remaining DPV-spike after additional RFCA (Unsuccessful group), and 26 with DPV-spike after only PVI (Spike group). AF recurrence was evaluated among the 4 groups. Results After PVI, DPV-spike was documented in 87 PVs (14%) from 65 patients. During 16 ± 9 months of follow-up, the incidence of the freedom from AF was significantly higher in the No-spike group than that in the Spike group and Unsuccessful group (P < 0.05), and tended to be higher in the Successful group than that in the Spike group and Unsuccessful group (P = 0.08 and 0.11, respectively). In a multivariate analysis, the remaining PV-spike after ablation was an independent predictor of AF recurrence (HR 2.44; CI 1.10-5.43, P < 0.05). No major complications including PV stenosis were observed during the follow-up. Conclusions DPV-spike after PVI may be associated with higher electrical activity within the PVs and may be one of the risk factors for AF recurrence. Additional RFCA for DPV-spike was effective to reduce the AF recurrence after PVI.
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