For a-axis oriented and c-axis in-plane aligned YBa2Cu3O7-δ/artificial pinning center (Y123/APC) alternately-layered thin films, effects of the APC materials on the multilayer structures are discussed. Pr123, (Y1-xPrx)123 and Gd2CuO4(Gd214) were used as APCs. The multilayer structure was observed for Y123/Pr123 films and Y123/Gd214 films. However, some grains are also grown in the Y123/Gd214 film. For the Y123/Pr123 multilayer film, each Pr123 layer act as two-dimensional APCs (2D APCs) in the magnetic field angular dependences of the critical current density. The growth mechanism of the multilayer structure in the Y123/2D APC films is discussed by a transmission electron microscopy and an atomic force microscope. It is found that two conditions are needed to obtain the c-axis correlated pinning effects by 2D APC in the a-axis oriented and c-axis in-plane aligned Y123/APC multilayer films: the same structure as Y123; Y-free APC materials.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering