Organic materials with different functional groups can be used to enhance metal bioavailability. Traditional organic materials (rice straw and clover) and ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) were applied to enhance metal uptake from polluted soil by Sedum plumbizincicola after repeated phytoextraction. Changes in pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metal concentrations were determined in the soil solution after EDDS application. Amendment of the soil with ground rice straw or ground clove resulted in higher concentrations of Cd only (by factors of 1.92 and 1.71 respectively) in S. plumbizincicola compared to control soil. Treatment with 3 mmol kg -1 EDDS increased all the metals studied by factors of 60.4, 1.67, and 0.27 for Cu, Cd, and Zn, respectively. EDDS significantly increased soil solution DOC and pH and increased soil plant-available metals above the amounts that the plants could take up, resulting in high soil concentrations of soluble metals and high risk of ground water contamination. After repeated phytoremediation of metal contaminated soils the efficiency of metal removal declines as the concentrations of bioavailable metal fractions decline. Traditional organic materials can therefore be much more effective and environmentally friendly amendments than EDDS in enhancing phytoremediation efficiency of Cd contaminated soil.
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