A high-fructose diet (HFD) has been shown to elevate blood pressure (BP) and to decrease insulin sensitivity in rats. Although running exercise can attenuate these phenomena, its effect on target organ protection is not clear. We investigated whether exercise training has renal protective effects in this model. Nine-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats were allocated to groups that received HFD or a control diet (control group) for 15 weeks. At the age of 10 weeks, fructose-fed rats were allocated to groups that were given vehicle (FRU group), temocapril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (TEM group), exercise training (EX group; treadmill running), or temocapril plus exercise training (TEM+EX group). BP was higher in the FRU group than in the control group. Exercise training tended to decrease BP and temocapril treatment decreased BP significantly. Proteinuria was similar in the five groups. Plasma leptin concentration and epididymal fat weight were lower in the EX and TEM+EX groups than in the FRU group. In the soleus muscle of the FRU group, the composite ratio of type I fiber was decreased and that of type IIa fiber was increased compared with those in the control group. Both temocapril and exercise training restored these ratios. The glomerular sclerosis index (GSI) was higher in the FRU group than in the control group. GSI was decreased equally in the TEM, EX, and TEM+EX groups and was positively correlated with plasma leptin concentration. The results suggest that exercise training ameliorates glomerular sclerosis through mechanisms other than a reduction in BP.
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