Background We analyzed the effects of local extension sites on survival in patients with locally advanced maxillary sinus cancer. Methods The criteria for inclusion in this study were as follows: (1) previously untreated maxillary sinus cancer; (2) squamous cell carcinoma; (3) T4 disease; and (4) curative-intent treatment. The data for 118 patients were obtained from 28 institutions across Japan and analyzed for overall survival and local control rates by local extension site. Results Sites with a poor prognosis included the cribriform plate, dura, nasopharynx, middle cranial fossa, and cranial nerves other than V2. There was a significant correlation among these sites, except for the cranial nerves. Additionally, the hard palate was the only site that correlated with nodal involvement and showed a poor treatment outcome. Conclusion Even in cases presenting with similar T4 maxillary sinus cancer, treatment should be performed in consideration of the local extension site.
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