Early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS) and inheritable Blau syndrome (BS) share characteristic clinical features of juvenile-onset systemic granulomatosis syndrome that mainly affects skin, joints, and eyes. However, no direct evidence has been shown for the possible common origin of these 2 diseases. Recent discovery of CARD15 mutations in BS families encouraged us to investigate similar CARD15 mutations in EOS patients. Among 10 EOS cases retrospectively collected in Japan, heterozygous missense mutations were found in 9 cases; 4 showed a 1000C>T (R334W in amino acid change) that has been reported in BS, 4 showed novel 1487A>T (H496L), 1538T>C (M513T), 1813 A>C (T605P), and 2010C>A (N670K), and 1 case showed double 1146C>G (D382E)/1834G>A (A612T) mutations on different alleles. All 6 of these variants of CARD15 showed increased basal nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity. These findings indicate that the majority of EOS and BS cases share the common genetic etiology of CARD15 mutations that cause constitutive NF-κB activation.
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