Dual-Doppler lidar and heliborne sensors were used to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the wind field over Sendai Airport in June 2007. The 3D structures of several-hundred-meter-scale horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) in the sea-breeze layer were observed by the dual-Doppler lidar. The scale of the HCRs determined by the heliborne sensors roughly agreed with that determined by the dual-Doppler lidar. Analysis of the dual-Doppler lidar data showed that the region of upward flow in the HCRs originated in near-surface low-speed streaks. This structure is consistent with the results of large-eddy simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer. The aspect ratios. of the HCRs were close to those predicted by linear theories.
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