Interspecific interactions are contingent upon organism phenotypes, and thus phenotypic evolution can modify interspecific interactions and affect ecological dynamics. Recent studies have suggested that male–male competition within a species selects for capability to reproductively interfere with a closely related species. Here, we examine the effect of past evolutionary history under different mating regimes on the demographic dynamics of interspecific competition in Callosobruchus seed beetles. We used previously established experimental evolution lines of Callosobruchus chinensis that evolved under either forced lifelong monogamy or polygamy for 17 generations, and examined the demographic dynamics of competition between these C. chinensis lines and a congener, Callosobruchus maculatus. Callosobruchus chinensis was competitively excluded by C. maculatus in all trials. Time series data analyses suggested that reproductive interference from C. chinensis was relatively more important in the trials involving polygamous C. chinensis than those involving monogamous C. chinensis, in accordance with the potentially higher reproductive interference capability of polygamous C. chinensis. However, the estimated signs and magnitudes of interspecific interactions were not fully consistent with this explanation, implying the evolution of not only reproductive interference but also other interaction mechanisms. Our study thus suggests multifaceted effects of sexually selected traits on interspecific competitive dynamics.
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