Dielectrophoretic manipulation of a single chlorella cell was performed using a dual-microdisk electrode, which consists of two Pt-Rh ultrafine wires (ca. 1-μm radius) sealed in a glass capillary. An attractive or repulsive force was induced on the chlorella depending on the frequency of the ac voltage applied between the two disk electrodes. To avoid the direct contact of a chlorella with the metal, a dual electrode with retracted disks was fabricated and used for forming a micropattern of chlorellas at a solid substrate. The effect of both the frequency and ion concentration of the solutions on the dielectrophoretic force exerted on a chlorella cell was investigated in detail based on the theories of dielectrophoresis.
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