Aim: Leiomyosarcoma is the most common type of uterine sarcoma. In some leiomyosarcoma cases, preoperative diagnosis might be difficult, and they might be treated as benign lesions. We evaluated diagnostic values of preoperative serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer and C-reactive protein for differentiating leiomyosarcoma. Methods: From 2008 to 2013, leiomyosarcoma cases in three university hospitals were enrolled. Preoperative serum LDH, D-dimer and C-reactive protein were analyzed if tested. These markers of pathologically diagnosed leiomyoma cases presumed benign (group B) and presumed malignant (group PM) were compared with those of leiomyosarcoma cases (group S). Results: Groups S, PM and B had 36, 28 and 69 cases, respectively. Positive rates of LDH were 66.7%, 14.3% and 0% in groups S, PM and B, respectively. Positive rates of D-dimer and C-reactive protein were 83.3% and 64.5%, 17.9% and 10.7% and 5% and 2.9% in groups S, PM and B, respectively. Positive rates of all three markers were high in the order of leiomyosarcoma, atypical leiomyoma and typical leiomyoma. In group PM, 12 (63.2%) cases were negative for all three markers, whereas 1 (3.3%) case was negative in group S. No case was positive for all markers in group PM, whereas 41.2% leiomyosarcoma cases were positive for all markers. When all parameters were positive, specificity and positive predictive value were 100% in differentiating leiomyosarcoma from group PM. Conclusion: Combination of LDH, D-dimer and C-reactive protein could be useful for distinguishing leiomyosarcoma from especially degenerated or atypical leiomyoma.
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