Little information is available on the clinical characteristics of infectious complications that occur in the early period after reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation (RIST). We retrospectively investigated the clinical features of neutropenic fever and infectious episodes within 30 days after RIST in 76 patients who had received fluoroquinolones as part of their antibacterial prophylaxis. Preparative regimens included cladribine 0.66 mg/kg or fludarabine 180 mg/m2 plus busulfan 8 mg/kg. All but 1 patient survived 30 days after transplantation, and 75 patients (99%) became neutropenic within a median duration of 9 days. Neutropenic fever was observed in 29 patients (38%), and bacterial infection was confirmed in 15 (20%) of these, including bacteremia (n = 13), bacteremia plus pneumonia (n = 1), and urinary tract infection (n = 1). The causative organisms were gram-positive (n = 9) and gram-negative organisms (n = 7), with a mortality rate of 6%. Neither viral nor fungal infection was documented. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of neutropenia at the initiation of preparative regimens was an independent risk factor for subsequent documented bacterial infections (P = .026; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-35.1). We conclude that neutropenic fever and bacteremia remain common complications in RIST.
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