Bending motions of the tip of a conventional endoscope are controlled from outside the body by wire traction. A shaft of an endoscope should be relatively hard to avoid buckling by wire traction. The active bending mechanism of an endoscope, which is realized using shape memory alloy (SMA) coil actuators instead of wire traction, is soft. Using micro-fabrication technology on non-planar substrate, cylindrical substrate of thin endoscope was fabricated. These endoscopes enable precise observations and treatments of deep areas of the human body.
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