We observed electronic K x rays emitted from muonic iron atoms using superconducting transition-edge sensor microcalorimeters. The energy resolution of 5.2 eV in FWHM allowed us to observe the asymmetric broad profile of the electronic characteristic Kα and Kβ x rays together with the hypersatellite Khα x rays around 6 keV. This signature reflects the time-dependent screening of the nuclear charge by the negative muon and the L-shell electrons, accompanied by electron side feeding. Assisted by a simulation, these data clearly reveal the electronic K- and L-shell hole production and their temporal evolution on the 10-20 fs scale during the muon cascade process.
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