Heavily indium (In)-doped Si crystals were grown by the Czochralski method under a consideration of the effects of co-doping of electrically neutral group-IV elements (C, Ge or Sn). The In concentration in In-doped Si increased with the amount of In charged into the crucible and reached 3.5×10 17 cm-3. The carrier concentration was at most 6×1016 cm-3, limited by the low ionization ratio of ~20% of In. Co-doping of C and Ge effectively enhanced the In concentration while Sn did not, which was examined in terms of the atomistic size, lattice parameter change, mutual bonding energy and solubility of group-IV elements in Si. However, no sufficient increase in carrier concentrations was detected in Si by the co-doping, and formation of some clusters or complexes was suggested.
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