Cryogen-free operation of the Soft X-ray Spectrometer instrument

Gary A. Sneiderman, Peter J. Shirron, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Thomas G. Bialas, Kevin R. Boyce, Meng P. Chiao, Michael J. DiPirro, Megan E. Eckart, Leslie Hartz, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Candace Masters, Dan McCammon, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Hirofumi Noda, Frederick S. Porter, Andrew E. Szymkowiak, Yoh Takei, Mashiro Tsujimoto, Seiji Yoshida

研究成果: Article査読

2 被引用数 (Scopus)


The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is the first space-based instrument to implement operational redundancy of a sub-Kelvin cooling system. Its cooling system includes a superfluid helium cryostat and five cryocoolers, provided by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and three adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs) with four active heat switches, provided by NASA. These elements are configured in one of two ways to control the heat sink of the x-ray microcalorimeter detectors at 50 mK. The "helium mode," the simpler of the two modes, is used while liquid helium is present and uses all five cryocoolers and two ADRs. The first two ADR stages operate together and reject their heat directly to the liquid at ∼1.1 K. In the "cryogen-free mode," for operation after the helium is depleted, the first stage ADR operation is unchanged, the second stage is repurposed to control the empty helium tank at ∼1.5 K, and the third stage transfers heat from the 1.5-K stage to the 4.5-K interface of the Joule-Thomson cooler. The development and verification details of this capability are presented within this paper and offer valuable insights into the challenges, successes, and lessons that can benefit other missions, particularly those employing cryogen-free or hybrid cooling systems.

ジャーナルJournal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems
出版ステータスPublished - 2018 4 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 電子材料、光学材料、および磁性材料
  • 制御およびシステム工学
  • 器械工学
  • 天文学と天体物理学
  • 機械工学
  • 宇宙惑星科学


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