Multiple observations of subsurface and surface phenomena during volcanic eruptions provide important information about eruption styles, eruption column dynamics, and magma plumbing systems. During the 2011 eruptions of Kirishima-Shinmoe-dake volcano in Japan, borehole-type tiltmeter data and weather radar data captured the subsurface and surface phenomena, respectively; the tiltmeters detected deflation of a magma chamber caused by migration of magma to the surface, and the weather radar detected changes in the height of the eruption cloud echo. In this study, we present a method based on the correlation between magma chamber deflation and cloud echo height to identify eruption styles. The method can detect whether a column-forming eruption is accompanied by magma migration from the magma chamber (e.g.; sub-Plinian eruption), or not (e.g.; Vulcanian explosion). By using well-correlated chamber deflation and echo height data, we found that eruption column dynamics during the Shinmoe-dake eruptions are well described by a one-quarter power scaling relationship between cloud height and magma discharge rate, and that a clear correlation between geodetic volume change of the magma chamber and the erupted volume indicates a stable magma plumbing system connecting the magma chamber and the surface.
ASJC Scopus subject areas