Purpose: We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity tests (CD-DSTs) in predicting the efficacy of adjuvant chemo-therapeutic treatments for pancreatic cancer (PC). Methods: The clinicopathological characteristics and prognoses of 22 PC patients who underwent CD-DST after pancreatectomy at Tohoku University between 2012 and 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Eligibility criteria were resectable or borderline resectable PC, successful evaluation for 5-fluorouracil sensitivity by CD-DST, treatment with S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy, and no preoperative chemotherapy. Results: The rate of successful evaluation by CD-DST was 52.3% in PC. The optimal T/C ratio, defined as the ratio of the number of cancer cells in the treatment group (T) to that in the control group (C), for 5-fluorouracil was 85% using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The sensitive group (T/C ratio < 85%; n = 11) had a better recurrence-free survival rate than the resistant group (T/C ratio ≥ 85%; n = 11; P = 0.029). A Cox proportional hazards regression model demonstrated that sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil was an independent predictor of recurrence on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 3.28; 95.0% CI 1.20–9.84; P = 0.020). Conclusions: CD-DSTs helped to predict PC recurrence after S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy.
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