Periodontal ligament (PDL) cells play an essential role in orthodontic tooth movement. We recently reported that clodronate, a non-N-containing bisphosphonate, strongly inhibited tooth movement in rats, and thus could be a useful adjunct for orthodontic treatment. However, it is not clear how clodronate affects the responses of PDL cells to orthodontic force. In this study, we hypothesized that clodronate prevents the mechanical stress-induced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and nitric oxide (NO) in human PDL cells. A compressive stimulus caused a striking increase in PGE2 production, while the responses of IL-1β and NO were less marked. Clodronate concentration-dependently inhibited the stress-induced production of PGE2. Clodronate also strongly inhibited stress-induced gene expression for COX-2 and RANKL. These results suggest that the inhibitory effects of clodronate on tooth movement and osteoclasts may be due, at least in part, to the inhibition of COX-2-dependent PGE2 production and RANKL expression in PDL cells.
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