To clarify the differences between childhood-onset moyamoya disease and that with onset in adulthood, we studied the clinical course and angiographic findings of adult patients (over 20 years of age) with moyamoya disease of childhood onset (up to 15 years of age). The clinical course in 25 patients could be assessed. The follow-up period was 5-27 years. Neurological deficits were noted in 11/23 and mental disorders in 9/21. In all except one, the illness had started before the age of 7 years. Neither neurological nor mental condition changed during or after adolescence (15-20 years of age). Two patients died of intracranial hemorrhage. The disease progressed in angiographic stage until adolescence, but had stabilized or almost stabilized by the age of 20 years. This study indicates that moyamoya disease with onset in childhood carries high morbidity and mortality. The disease advances in angiographic stage between childhood and adolescence, but stabilizes or almost stabilizes between adolescence and adulthood.
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