The expression of chemokine receptors on lymphocytes in the blood and CSF of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients was analyzed at relapse and remission. Both CD4+ and CD8+ cells in CSF at relapse were enriched for Th1-type receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 expression, and were reduced for Th2-type receptors CCR3 and CCR4 expression compared with those of the blood. CCR1 and CCR2 expressions on T cells were increased in CSF and blood, respectively. At remission, CCR5 expression, but not CXCR3 expression, was reduced in CSF CD4+ cells. A biased Th1/Th2 balance may play a critical role in active inflammation and CCR5 on CSF CD4+ cells is a good marker of the disease activity.
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