Five major products (adducts A1a, A1b, A2, A3, and B) from the reaction of guanosine (Guo) with 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenal (ONE) were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis of these compounds suggested that modifications to the nucleoside had been introduced. Adducts A 1a, A1b, A2, and A3 were heptanone-ethano-2′-Guo adducts that all decomposed to adduct B. Adducts A1a and A1b were isomeric hemi-ketal forms. Adducts A 2 and A3 were diastereomers of the open chain ketone form. The structure of adduct B was shown by LC-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy to be the heptanone-etheno-Guo (HeGuo) adduct, 3-(D-erythropentafuranosyl)imidazo-7- (heptane-2″-one)-9-hydroxyl[1,2-α]purine. The overall reaction of Guo with ONE was very similar to its reaction with 2′-deoxyguanosine. Reaction of ONE with yeast transfer RNA also resulted in the formation of HεGuo. Finally, HεGuo was detected and quantified in the RNA from rat intestinal epithelial cells that stably express cyclooxygenase-2. These data show that RNA is modified by the same bifunctional reactive electrophiles derived from lipid peroxidation that covalently modify DNA.
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