The Japanese higher education system has struggled with a demographic decline of the university-age population since the 1990s. The expected shrinkage of the overall consumer market due to ageing also significantly pressures Japanese enterprises to expand business in the global market outside Japan. Under these conditions, Japanese universities, heavily reliant on the national language and culture, are facing pressure to internationalise their outlook and operations. However, brain drain is a topic lacking in active discussion, partly because of the continuing inward-oriented preferences of Japanese students, which is aimed towards traditional career mobility within Japanese companies.
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