Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an enzyme associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and has a protective effect against oxidation of lipoproteins in mammals. We investigated PON1 enzyme activities in bovine serum and its distribution among bovine serum lipoproteins. Paraoxonase activity and arylesterase activity in serum (152 Holstein cows and 42 Japanese Blacks) were 275 ± 55 U/ml and 130 ± 27 U/ml (mean ± SD), respectively. There was a high correlation (r=0.962) between the two enzyme activities, and the activity ratio of paraoxonase/arylesterase did not exhibit individual variation. More than 85% of both paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were detected in the HDL fraction separated by ultracentrifugation. The 43-kDa protein in the HDL fraction was identified as bovine PON1 by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. Bovine PON1 was purified by ultracentrifugation and preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and an anti-bovine PON1 antiserum was developed. The concentration of PON1 protein determined by immunoblotting was closely correlated (r=0.976) with paraoxonase activity in serum. Bovine HDL was further fractionated into subpopulations, and the distribution of PON1 was examined. Paraoxonase activity and PON1 protein increased with decreasing HDL size and approximately 60% of total paraoxonase activity was distributed in the heavy HDL fraction. The different distributions of PON1 among HDL subpopulations might be concerned to the function and metabolism of bovine HDL.
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