Background: It remains to be determined whether balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) improves biventricular cardiac functions and pulmonary flow in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods and Results: We enrolled 30 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH who underwent BPA, and carried out serial cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR; M/F, 9/21; median age, 65.2 years). No patient died during the treatment or follow-up period. BPA significantly improved WHO functional class (III/IV, 83.0 to 4.0%), 6-min walking distance (330.2±168.7 to 467.3±114.4 m), mean pulmonary artery pressure (40.8±10.7 to 23.2±4.94 mmHg), pulmonary vascular resistance (9.26±4.19 to 3.35±1.40 WU) and cardiac index (2.19±0.64 to 2.50±0.57 L·min·m2; all P<0.01). CMR also showed improvement of right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (EF; 41.3±12.4 to 50.7±8.64%), left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume index (72.1±14.0 to 81.6±18.6 ml/m2) and LV stroke volume index (41.0±9.25 to 47.8±12.3 ml/m2; all P<0.01). There was a significant correlation between change in RVEF and LVEF (Pearson’s r=0.45, P=0.01). Average velocity in the main pulmonary artery was also significantly improved (7.50±2.43 to 9.79±2.92 cm/s, P<0.01). Conclusions: BPA improves biventricular functions and pulmonary flow in patients with inoperable CTEPH.
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