In this study, the degradation pathway of the azo dye X-3B was explored in biofilm electrode reactors (BERs). The X-3B and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were evaluated under different voltages, salinities, and temperatures. The removal efficiencies increased with increasing voltage. Additionally, the BER achieved maximum X-3B removal efficiencies of 66.26% and 75.27% at a NaCl concentration of 0.33 g L−1 and temperature of 32 °C, respectively; it achieved a COD removal efficiency of 75.64% at a NaCl concentration of 0.330 g L−1. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the X-3B biodegradation process first involved the interruption of the conjugated double-bond, resulting in aniline, benzodiazepine substance, triazine, and naphthalene ring formation. These compounds were further degraded into lower-molecular-weight products. From this, the degradation pathway of the azo dye X-3B was proposed in BERs. The relative abundances of the microbial community at the phylum and genus levels were affected by temperature, the presence of electrons, and an anaerobic environment in the BERs. To achieve better removal efficiencies, further studies on the functions of the microorganisms are needed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis