Background: Recent studies have revealed that (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR), a newly identified member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), is associated with blood pressure regulation in animals. However, there is no information on (P)RR in humans. We investigated the association of (P)RR gene polymorphisms with blood pressure in a Japanese population. Methods: Subjects (n = 1,112) were recruited from participants in the Ohasama study, a Japanese cohort study. For the association study, we selected three polymorphisms: -782A>G (rs2968915), intervening sequence (IVS)5+169C>T (rs5918007), and +1513A>G (rs6609080). Because the (P)RR gene is on the X chromosome, men (n = 357) and women (n = 755) were analyzed separately. Results: In men, 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values, daytime SBP and DBP values, and nighttime SBP and DBP values were significantly higher in IVS5+169T allele carriers than C allele carriers. Multiple regression analysis showed that IVS5+169C>T was significantly and independently related to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). IVS5+169C>T was not associated with casual blood pressure (CBP) in men. In women, there were no significant differences in blood pressure values among the three genotypes of IVS5+169C>T. This polymorphism had no significant association with any other clinical characteristic. -782A>G was weakly associated with ABP in men. +1513A>G was not associated with blood pressure values in either men or women. Conclusions: We demonstrated for the first time that polymorphism of the (P)RR gene IVS5+169C>T is associated with ABP in Japanese men. This association suggests that (P)RR has a role in blood pressure regulation.
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